Year: 2021

Group Theory of Syntactical Freedom in DNA Transcription and Genome Decoding

Transcription factors (TFs) are proteins that recognize specific DNA fragments in order to decode the genome and ensure its optimal functioning. TFs work at the local and global scales by specifying cell type, cell growth and death, cell migration, organization and timely tasks. We investigate the structure of DNA-binding motifs with the theory of finitely […]

Graph Coverings for Investigating Non Local Structures in Proteins, Music and Poems

We explore the structural similarities in three different languages, first in the protein language whose primary letters are the amino acids, second in the musical language whose primary letters are the notes, and third in the poetry language whose primary letters are the alphabet. For proteins, the non local (secondary) letters are the types of […]

The Curled Up Dimension in Quasicrystals

Most quasicrystals can be generated by the cut-and-project method from higher dimensional parent lattices. In doing so they lose the periodic order their parent lattice possess, replaced with aperiodic order, due to the irrationality of the projection. However, perfect periodic order is discovered in the perpendicular space when gluing the cut window boundaries together to […]

Quantum Information in the Protein Codes, 3-manifolds and the Kummer Surface

Every protein consists of a linear sequence over an alphabet of 20 letters/amino acids. The sequence unfolds in the 3-dimensional space through secondary (local foldings), tertiary (bonds) and quaternary (disjoint multiple) structures. The mere existence of the genetic code for the 20 letters of the linear chain could be predicted with the (informationally complete) irreducible […]

Geometric State Sum Models from Quasicrystals

In light of the self-simulation hypothesis, a simple form implementation of the principle of efficient language is discussed in a self-referential geometric quasicrystalline state sum model in three dimensions. Emergence is discussed in context of geometric state sum models.